Ptolemais Epitheron (Adobana, Sudan)
On the Sudanese Red Sea coast, close to the border with Eritrea and inland of the modern town of Aqiq, is the hamlet of Adobana where the remains of the classical harbour of Ptolemais Epitheron can be seen:
Most of the ashlars, cut from fossilized coral, were re-used in later structures. In Ptolemaic times (about 300-200 BCE) this was where African elephants, meant for the Ptolemaic army, where shipped to Berenike:



Objective of visit:
  To examine the condition of the site, where a modern harbour is now planned, and assess the necessity and possibilities of archaeological research in the region.
Date of visit:
  January 2006
Fellow visitors:
  A small team of scholars affiliated with the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research in Cambridge and the Faculty of Archaeology of the University of Khartoum, directed by Laurence Smith PhD. The site was last comprehensively described by J.W. Crowfoot in The Geographical Journal of May 1911 (number 37,5; pp. 523-550).
After we finally reached the site it was obvious that there is no immediate threat to the ancient remains. Archaeological investigation of the region, however, is recommanded to take place as soon as possible.
Approximate position and date of the site:   A combination of tectonic movement, the rise of the sea level and the erosion of the Red Sea Hills resulted in Ptolemais Epitheron (18°N 10' 43" / 38°E 15' 53") now being some distance inland from the Red Sea coast. The town was probably not in use for a long time, after being founded around 275 BCE, as the elephant hunters were too effective and had to relocate further south. Soon after that African elephants did prove useless in warfare and the project was abandoned.
Short description of the site:   Ptolemais Epitheron was founded by Ptolemy II around 275 BCE to serve as a source for elephants needed for his war with the Seleucids who had cut off the supply route of Indian elephants. The locally caught African elephants were transported to Berenike, in southern Egypt, on special ships, called elephantagoi, and walked through the desert to training stations in the Nile Valley. The project and the southern harbours, including Ptolemais Epitheron, were abandoned when African elephants appeared useless in warfare. Berenike and the desert routes, however, kept being used for a long time serving the long distance trade with Arabia and India. The short period of occupation, combined with the fact that the building materials were re-used for later structures (mostly graves), make that little is left of Ptolemais Epitheron. Remains of structures of unknown date, including standing stones and many graves, can be found in its vicinity.
Additional remarks:
My work in Sudan would not have been possible without the support of the Fayum Project and the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology at UCLA.