An overview of the hydreuma, of which the north-eastern corner has been damaged by a flood that once went through the wadi:
Where intact, the walls of the hydreuma (with faces of large stones and a core of rubble) still stand to a considerable height:


Objective of visit:
To draw a measured plan of the site and study the surface remains (including the ceramic finds).
Date of visit:
  January 1994
Fellow visitors:
  Eng. Ron Zitterkopf and Hagg Tawfiq (our bedouin guide).
A survey was performed using steel tape measures. Off-site assistance was given by pottery expert Dr. Roberta Tomber (Museum of London). No excavations took place. A full publication of this site is pending.
Approximate position and date of the site:   Samut is in the southern part of the Egyptian Eastern desert, south of the Edfu-Marsa Alam asphalt road. Surface pottery dated to the Roman period (ca. 30 - 600 AD) but the find of a grinding stone, as well as the historic sources, indicate a much earlier date.
Short description of the site:   Samut was a stop on the ancient road from the harbour at Berenike to the Nile. Here caravans could find water, food and shelter for the night. The find of a grinding stone, of the type as used in ancient gold mines, confirmed the idea that the hydreuma must also have accommodated the nearby Ptolemaic gold mines.
Additional remarks:
About 10 km. north of the hydreuma, the remains of an large gold mine were discovered. These appeared to be Ptolemaic in date. Our work was sponsored by the Berenike Project and private donors.